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Persian Treasure

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Persian Treasure

WallFace PERSIAN TREASURE Luxus Struktur Leder Wandpaneel Wand​-verkleidung selbstklebende Tapete gold | 2,60 qm WallFace Decor LL - Leater. Wandpaneel Struktur Leder WallFace PERSIAN TREASURE Wand-​verkleidung selbstklebende Tapete gold 2,60 qm: tomoyo.nu: Baumarkt. Eignung. Boden- und Wandbelag außen, Boden- und Wandbelag innen, Küchenarbeitsplatte. Farbe. blau, gelb. Herkunft. Brasilien. Petrographie. Pegmatit. Shopbop Designer Modemarken. Weitere Informationen. Sichere Zahlung. Diese detailgetreu hergestellten Imitate fühlen sich nicht nur Free Slots Online Sizzling Hot und sehr hochwertig an, sondern ziehen auch sofort in jedem Raum alle Blicke auf sich. Hochwertige Produkte. Seite 1 von 1 Zum Anfang Seite 1 von 1. Weitere Informationen finden Sie auf dieser Seite: paneele wandverkleidung. The impressive Oxus Treasure was discovered at the end of the 19th century. The British Museum has 51 thin gold plaques with incised designs, which are regarded as votive plaques left by devotees at a temple as an offering to the deity. Then as now, the south bank of the Oxus was Afghanistan ; Free Slots Games Eu the period when the Persian Treasure originated Victory Poker whole area was part of the Persian Empire. However, the time delay between excavations and the moment when the Telefon Spiele artifacts were cataloged and exhibited created 888 Casino Texas Holdem for maintaining the precious pieces as one complete collection. According to O. Bei Amazon verkaufen. Amazon Business Kauf auf Rechnung. Sollten Sie sich nicht auf Anhieb entscheiden können, können Sie bei uns Muster der Wandpaneele bestellen. Alle Produktinformationen Kundenfragen und Antworten Kundenrezensionen. Entdecken Spiel Book Of Ra Kostenlos Download jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Bei uns finden Sie alles, Hippodrome Casino Sie für ein schönes Zuhause brauchen - aus einer Hand! Sie erwerben Produkte direkt vom Best Poker und ohne Zwischenhändler. Relaxdays Wandpaneele selbstklebend, 10er Set, dekorative Steinoptik, 3D Paneele, weicher Schaumstoff, 78x70cm, schwarz. Persian Treasure

Apart from this, two gold models of chariots are also very eye-catching. One of them is incomplete, but the second is in a perfect state of preservation.

There were also some figures of horses and riders that almost surely belonged to this set of figurines. Several of the vessels discovered near the Oxus River are now located in London.

This group of artifacts includes a golden jug and bowls. These items were also decorated with motifs of real and mythical animals.

One of the most interesting vessels is a hollow gold fish, which depicts a species of carp that is only found in the Oxus River.

The hollow gold fish vessel. The plaques are shaped like rectangles. The smallest of these offering plaques is just 2 cm 0. Researchers unearthed at least coins.

Together, these artifacts helped them date the magnificent treasure to the beginning of the 2nd century AD.

One of the votive plaques. Unfortunately, further details about the treasure were lost during excavations and over the decades following its discovery.

Two of the biggest problems are identifying the original owner and finding out why it was buried near the Oxus River.

Now, most of the known pieces of the Oxus Treasure are located in London. Some of the artifacts are believed to be in St Petersburg, but this is uncertain.

Although the cache was taken to Europe and is not in its homeland, the destruction of many valued aspects of Persian heritage means that it is still one of the greatest treasures from the ancient Achaemenid Empire.

Hollow gold heads of beardless men made from a single piece of hammered sheet, Oxus Treasure. Top Image: A gold chariot model from the Oxus Treasure.

Dalton, O. Natalia Klimczak is an historian, journalist and writer. She worked for Ancient Orgins from December until April Ancient Origins has been quoted by:.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings.

Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us.

We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Skip to main content. Login or Register in order to comment.

Related Articles on Ancient-Origins. Rome, this very name conjures up images of an ancient empire so vast that experts from different ages have been spellbound by the unprecedented magnanimity of its reaches.

Ancient Rome defined the Mithras the god originated in the east, in Persia modern day Iran where he was first worshipped. When soldiers of the Roman Empire came back to the West they brought this cult with them and in time Mughal Emperor Humayun ruled over vast territory in Asia from until he was ousted in With the aid of the Safavid, the ruling Persian dynasty, he regained his lands in Humayun was The skeleton and collection of ancient artifacts were discovered Mithra was the god of light, purity, goodness, and truth and occupied an important place in the faith of the ancient Aryans.

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The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts. The animal's legs are folded beneath its body in a way characteristic of the Scythian animal style of the southern Russian steppes, an influence also seen in other pieces such a ring with a lion.

A stylized birds-head ornament can be recognised, like the finely-decorated scabbard of "Median" shape, as very similar to that of a soldier from a Persepolis relief, where it forms the crest to his bow-case.

These have a variety of motifs, including the face of the Egyptian dwarf-god Bes , lion-griffins, a sphinx , and a cut-out figure apparently showing a king see illustration below; Bes is centre in the top row, the king at bottom right.

The British Museum has 51 thin gold plaques with incised designs, which are regarded as votive plaques left by devotees at a temple as an offering to the deity.

Most show a single human figure facing left, many carrying a bunch of twigs called a barsom used in offerings; these probably represent the offeror.

The dress of the figures shows the types known as "Median" and "Persian" to modern historians, and the quality of the execution is mostly relatively low, but varies greatly, with some appearing to have been incised by amateurs.

Three show animals, a horse, a donkey and a camel; possibly it was their health that was the subject of the offering.

The London group includes bowls, a gold jug, and a handle from a vase or ewer in the form of a leaping ibex, [23] which is similar to a winged Achaemenid handle in the Louvre.

The association of surviving coins with the treasure is less generally accepted than for the other items, and O. Dalton of the British Museum, author of the monograph on the treasure, was reluctant to identify any specific coins as part of it, while Sir Alexander Cunningham see below disagreed, identifying about The Russian scholar E.

Zeymal associated surviving coins with the treasure, without extending the terminus post quem for deposition of the treasure beyond Cunningham's figure of about BC.

The treasure was evidently discovered by local people somewhere on the north bank of the Oxus in what is today Tajikistan but was in the s in the Emirate of Bokhara , which was in the process of being swallowed up by the Russian Empire.

Then as now, the south bank of the Oxus was Afghanistan ; at the period when the treasure originated the whole area was part of the Persian Empire.

The approximate area of the discovery is fairly clear; it was near, perhaps some three miles south of, Takhti-Sangin , where an important temple was excavated by Soviet archaeologists in the 20th century, producing a large number of finds of metalwork and other objects, which seem to have been deposited from about BC to as late as the third century AD.

While it is tempting to connect the temple and treasure, as some scholars have proposed, the range of objects found, and a founding date for the temple proposed by the excavators of about BC, do not neatly match up.

The area was a major ancient crossing point for the Oxus, and the treasure may have come from further afield. The first mention in print of the treasure was an article in a Russian newspaper in , written by a Russian general who in was in the area enquiring into the Trans-Caspian railway that the Russians had just begun to construct.

He recounted that local reports said that treasure had been found in the ruins of an ancient fort called "Takht-i Kuwad", which was sold to Indian merchants.

Cunningham acquired many pieces himself through dealers in northern India modern Pakistan. One large group of objects, perhaps the bulk of the treasure, was bought from locals by three merchants from Bokhara in , who unwisely left their convoy on the road south from Kabul to Peshawar and were captured by Afghan tribesmen, who carried them and their goods into the hills, but allowed a servant of the merchants to escape.

News of the episode reached Captain Francis Charles Burton, a British political officer in Afghanistan, who immediately set out with two orderlies.

About midnight he came upon the robbers, who had already begun to fight among themselves, presumably over the division of the loot, with four of them lying wounded on the ground.

The treasure was spread out on the floor of the cave they were sheltered in. In a parlay Burton recovered a good part of the treasure, and later a further portion, which he restored to the merchants.

The merchants then continued to Rawalpindi in modern Pakistan to sell the rest of the Treasure; Cunningham acquired many of these pieces, and through dealers, Franks others.

The robbers evidently considered the objects as bullion, and had cut up some larger ones, such as a gold scabbard now in the British Museum.

Franks later bought Cunningham's collection, and bequeathed all his objects to the British Museum at his death in Cavagnari, his mission and their guards were all massacred in Kabul on 3 September Lytton's rider was acquired by the British Museum in , and the chariot group in The Achaemenid kings, at least after Cyrus the Great and Cambyses , describe themselves in inscriptions as worshippers of Ahuramazda , but it is not clear if their religious practice included Zoroastrianism.

It is also evident that it was not the Persian way to impose the royal religious beliefs on their subjects as for example the Jews, whose religious practices were not interfered with after they were conquered.

Other Persian cults were the worship of Mithra and of Zurvan , and other local cults seem to have continued under the empire.

The religious context of the treasure is unclear, although it is thought to have come from a temple. The circumstances of the discovery and trading of the pieces, and their variety of styles and quality of workmanship, cast some doubt on their authenticity from the start, and "necessitate a cautious treatment of the Oxus Treasure, for it has passed through places of evil repute and cannot have come out quite unscathed", as Dalton put it in In particular, finds of jewellery including armlets and torcs in a tomb at Susa by a French expedition from onwards now in the Louvre are closely similar to the Oxus finds.

As the quality and style of the objects was generally considered to have stood the test of time, concerns over the antiquity of the great majority of the objects reduced over the years.

The issue was revived in when the archaeologist Oscar Muscarella , employed by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York for 40 years, was reported in The Times , in a story by Peter Watson , to have "labelled as mostly fake" the treasure.

In , Emomalii Rahmon , President of Tajikistan , was reported as calling for the repatriation of the treasure, despite the fact that it had been recovered and sold by local peoples and acquired by museums in the art market.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The two hollow heads, with the statuette perhaps of a king in front. Bloomsbury Academic.

The fullest account of Burton's involvement is in Dalton, , although it is unclear where he got his information from. British Museum.

Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oxus Treasure. Kura—Araxes culture. Proto-Elamite civilization.

Elamite dynasties. Jiroft culture. Bactria—Margiana Complex. Kingdom of Mannai. Neo-Assyrian Empire. Median Empire. Scythian Kingdom.

Achaemenid Empire. Ancient kingdom of Armenia. Seleucid Empire. Caucasian Iberia. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Parthian Empire. Caucasian Albania. Roman Empire.

Most show a single human figure facing left, many carrying a bunch of twigs called Grand Roulette Deluxe Fehler barsom used in Play Poker Online these probably represent the offeror. Ancient Places. Related Articles on Ancient-Origins. Ghurid dynasty. One of the most interesting vessels is a hollow gold fish, which depicts a species of carp that is only found in the Oxus River. Hollow gold heads of beardless men made from a single In Play Betting of hammered sheet, Oxus Persian Treasure. Skip to main content. He recounted that local reports said that treasure had been found in the ruins of an ancient fort called "Takht-i Kuwad", which was sold to Indian merchants. Human Origins.

Persian Treasure Cultural Products Video

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The griffin-headed bracelets from the hoard are typical of the 5th to 4th century BC court style of Achaemenid Persia. Bracelets of a similar form to ones from the treasure can be seen on reliefs from Persepolis being given as tribute, whilst Xenophon writes that armlets among other things were gifts of honour at the Persian court.

Glass, enamel or semi-precious stone inlays within the bracelets' hollow spaces have now been lost. Sir John Boardman regards the gold scabbard, decorated with tiny figures showing a lion hunt, as pre-Achaemenid Median work of about BC, drawing on Assyrian styles, though other scholars disagree, and the British Museum continues to date it to the 5th or 4th centuries.

The surviving objects, an uncertain proportion of the original finds, can be divided into a number of groups. There are a number of small figurines, some of which may have been detached from larger objects.

The single male figures appear to show worshippers rather than deities. The largest is most unusual for Persian art in showing a nude youth in silver standing in a formal pose, with a large conical hat covered in gold foil.

The statuette shows Greek influence, in the figure and the fact of being nude, but is not typical of ancient Greek art.

Two hollow gold heads of young males, rather crudely executed, probably belonged to composite statues with the main body in wood or some other material.

Other sculptural objects include two model chariots in gold, one incomplete, plus figures of a horse and a rider that may belong to this or other model groups, as may two other horses cut out from sheet gold.

It is pulled by four horses rather small, and with only nine legs surviving between them and carries two figures, a driver and a seated passenger, both wearing torcs.

The chariot has handrails at the open rear to assist getting in and out, while the solid front carries the face of the protective Egyptian dwarf-god Bes.

The two griffin-headed bracelets or armlets are the most spectacular pieces by far, despite lacking their stone inlays. There are a number of other bracelets, some perhaps torcs for the neck, several with simpler animal head terminals variously depicting goats, ibex, sheep, bulls, ducks, lions, and fantastic creatures.

Many have inlays, or empty cells for them; it used to be thought that this technique was acquired from Ancient Egyptian jewellery as in some of Tutankhamun 's grave goods , but Assyrian examples are now known.

The griffin-headed bracelets were also the most complex objects to manufacture, being cast in several elements, then worked in many different techniques, and soldered together.

Some of the surfaces are very thin, and show signs of damage, and in one place repair with a soldered patch. A "Gold plaque in the form of a lion-griffin, with the body of an ibex and a leaf-shaped tail", with missing inlay, has two prongs behind for attaching it, and may have been an ornament for a cap or the hair, or part of an object.

The animal's legs are folded beneath its body in a way characteristic of the Scythian animal style of the southern Russian steppes, an influence also seen in other pieces such a ring with a lion.

A stylized birds-head ornament can be recognised, like the finely-decorated scabbard of "Median" shape, as very similar to that of a soldier from a Persepolis relief, where it forms the crest to his bow-case.

These have a variety of motifs, including the face of the Egyptian dwarf-god Bes , lion-griffins, a sphinx , and a cut-out figure apparently showing a king see illustration below; Bes is centre in the top row, the king at bottom right.

The British Museum has 51 thin gold plaques with incised designs, which are regarded as votive plaques left by devotees at a temple as an offering to the deity.

Most show a single human figure facing left, many carrying a bunch of twigs called a barsom used in offerings; these probably represent the offeror.

The dress of the figures shows the types known as "Median" and "Persian" to modern historians, and the quality of the execution is mostly relatively low, but varies greatly, with some appearing to have been incised by amateurs.

Three show animals, a horse, a donkey and a camel; possibly it was their health that was the subject of the offering. The London group includes bowls, a gold jug, and a handle from a vase or ewer in the form of a leaping ibex, [23] which is similar to a winged Achaemenid handle in the Louvre.

The association of surviving coins with the treasure is less generally accepted than for the other items, and O. Dalton of the British Museum, author of the monograph on the treasure, was reluctant to identify any specific coins as part of it, while Sir Alexander Cunningham see below disagreed, identifying about The Russian scholar E.

Zeymal associated surviving coins with the treasure, without extending the terminus post quem for deposition of the treasure beyond Cunningham's figure of about BC.

The treasure was evidently discovered by local people somewhere on the north bank of the Oxus in what is today Tajikistan but was in the s in the Emirate of Bokhara , which was in the process of being swallowed up by the Russian Empire.

Then as now, the south bank of the Oxus was Afghanistan ; at the period when the treasure originated the whole area was part of the Persian Empire.

The approximate area of the discovery is fairly clear; it was near, perhaps some three miles south of, Takhti-Sangin , where an important temple was excavated by Soviet archaeologists in the 20th century, producing a large number of finds of metalwork and other objects, which seem to have been deposited from about BC to as late as the third century AD.

While it is tempting to connect the temple and treasure, as some scholars have proposed, the range of objects found, and a founding date for the temple proposed by the excavators of about BC, do not neatly match up.

The area was a major ancient crossing point for the Oxus, and the treasure may have come from further afield. The first mention in print of the treasure was an article in a Russian newspaper in , written by a Russian general who in was in the area enquiring into the Trans-Caspian railway that the Russians had just begun to construct.

He recounted that local reports said that treasure had been found in the ruins of an ancient fort called "Takht-i Kuwad", which was sold to Indian merchants.

Cunningham acquired many pieces himself through dealers in northern India modern Pakistan. One large group of objects, perhaps the bulk of the treasure, was bought from locals by three merchants from Bokhara in , who unwisely left their convoy on the road south from Kabul to Peshawar and were captured by Afghan tribesmen, who carried them and their goods into the hills, but allowed a servant of the merchants to escape.

News of the episode reached Captain Francis Charles Burton, a British political officer in Afghanistan, who immediately set out with two orderlies.

About midnight he came upon the robbers, who had already begun to fight among themselves, presumably over the division of the loot, with four of them lying wounded on the ground.

The treasure was spread out on the floor of the cave they were sheltered in. In a parlay Burton recovered a good part of the treasure, and later a further portion, which he restored to the merchants.

The merchants then continued to Rawalpindi in modern Pakistan to sell the rest of the Treasure; Cunningham acquired many of these pieces, and through dealers, Franks others.

The robbers evidently considered the objects as bullion, and had cut up some larger ones, such as a gold scabbard now in the British Museum. Franks later bought Cunningham's collection, and bequeathed all his objects to the British Museum at his death in Cavagnari, his mission and their guards were all massacred in Kabul on 3 September Lytton's rider was acquired by the British Museum in , and the chariot group in The Achaemenid kings, at least after Cyrus the Great and Cambyses , describe themselves in inscriptions as worshippers of Ahuramazda , but it is not clear if their religious practice included Zoroastrianism.

It is also evident that it was not the Persian way to impose the royal religious beliefs on their subjects as for example the Jews, whose religious practices were not interfered with after they were conquered.

Other Persian cults were the worship of Mithra and of Zurvan , and other local cults seem to have continued under the empire.

The religious context of the treasure is unclear, although it is thought to have come from a temple. The circumstances of the discovery and trading of the pieces, and their variety of styles and quality of workmanship, cast some doubt on their authenticity from the start, and "necessitate a cautious treatment of the Oxus Treasure, for it has passed through places of evil repute and cannot have come out quite unscathed", as Dalton put it in In particular, finds of jewellery including armlets and torcs in a tomb at Susa by a French expedition from onwards now in the Louvre are closely similar to the Oxus finds.

As the quality and style of the objects was generally considered to have stood the test of time, concerns over the antiquity of the great majority of the objects reduced over the years.

The issue was revived in when the archaeologist Oscar Muscarella , employed by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York for 40 years, was reported in The Times , in a story by Peter Watson , to have "labelled as mostly fake" the treasure.

In , Emomalii Rahmon , President of Tajikistan , was reported as calling for the repatriation of the treasure, despite the fact that it had been recovered and sold by local peoples and acquired by museums in the art market.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The two hollow heads, with the statuette perhaps of a king in front. Bloomsbury Academic.

The fullest account of Burton's involvement is in Dalton, , although it is unclear where he got his information from.

British Museum. Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. The smallest of these offering plaques is just 2 cm 0.

Researchers unearthed at least coins. Together, these artifacts helped them date the magnificent treasure to the beginning of the 2nd century AD.

One of the votive plaques. Unfortunately, further details about the treasure were lost during excavations and over the decades following its discovery.

Two of the biggest problems are identifying the original owner and finding out why it was buried near the Oxus River. Now, most of the known pieces of the Oxus Treasure are located in London.

Some of the artifacts are believed to be in St Petersburg, but this is uncertain. Although the cache was taken to Europe and is not in its homeland, the destruction of many valued aspects of Persian heritage means that it is still one of the greatest treasures from the ancient Achaemenid Empire.

Hollow gold heads of beardless men made from a single piece of hammered sheet, Oxus Treasure. Top Image: A gold chariot model from the Oxus Treasure.

Dalton, O. Natalia Klimczak is an historian, journalist and writer. She worked for Ancient Orgins from December until April Ancient Origins has been quoted by:.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings.

Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us.

We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Skip to main content. Login or Register in order to comment.

Related Articles on Ancient-Origins. Rome, this very name conjures up images of an ancient empire so vast that experts from different ages have been spellbound by the unprecedented magnanimity of its reaches.

Ancient Rome defined the Mithras the god originated in the east, in Persia modern day Iran where he was first worshipped. When soldiers of the Roman Empire came back to the West they brought this cult with them and in time Mughal Emperor Humayun ruled over vast territory in Asia from until he was ousted in With the aid of the Safavid, the ruling Persian dynasty, he regained his lands in Humayun was The skeleton and collection of ancient artifacts were discovered Mithra was the god of light, purity, goodness, and truth and occupied an important place in the faith of the ancient Aryans.

The Spread of Mithra There are various opinions on the spread of the Top New Stories. Across the ancient world, from the rocky deserts of the American West all the way to the shores of the Mediterranean, enigmatic parallels between ancient myths and archaeological sites are emerging.

The world of Slavic mythology is of the most mysterious and richest ancient and living traditions in the world. As Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe, their beliefs are widespread, diverse, and unique.

Human Origins. The Old Testament tells a story in which a diminutive David defeats the giant Goliath. Using just a sling to slay his enormous foe, this unlikely victor became the second Hebrew monarch.

The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts. Ancient Technology. Wootz steel was amongst the finest in the world.

It is the metal that was used to fashion weapons such as the famous Damascus blades of the Middle Ages. However, Wootz steel dates back much further Could Ancient Peruvians Soften Stone?

Ancient Places. A gigantic monument at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee, as well as several mysterious structures, including a gigantic stone wheel and a moon-shaped monument, were recently found in northern Israel Ten incredible underwater discoveries that have captured our imagination.

Floki and the Viking Discovery of Iceland.

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